Toruń was founded in the medieval times (the Foundation Charter was signed in 1233. Throughout the dramatic history of Poland. the city was fortunately saved from the considerable destruction. For that reason the city is abundant in monuments. many of which date back to the mediaeval period. Additionally. the significant number of the monuments was erected in accordance with the Gothic canon. The Medieval Town of Toruń is comprised of three elements: the ruins of the Teutonic Castle. the Old Town. and the New Town. The combination of the castle with the two towns. surrounded by a circuit of defensive walls. represents a rare form of medieval settlement agglomeration. The majority of the castle – which was built in a horseshoe-shaped plan in the mid-13th century as a base for the conquest and evangelization of Prussia – was destroyed during an uprising in 1454. when the local townspeople revolted against the Teutonic Order. The ruins and the archaeological remains have been excavated and safeguarded. The Old Town was granted an urban charter in 1233. which swiftly led to its expansion as a major commercial trading centre. The adjacent New Town developed from 1264. mainly as a centre for crafts and handiwork. Both urban areas bear witness to the interchange and creative adaptation of artistic experience that took place among the Hanseatic towns.